Ayer sees philosophy as linguistic in nature. Philosophy, insofar as it's a legitimate area of study that doesn't duplicate science, is about analyzing language. Philosophy deals with how to analyze notions like "material object," "self," "cause," "truth," "knowledge," "goodness," and so forth.
These summaries and problems deal with Chapters 2 and 3 of Ayer's Language, Truth and Logic. These materials are copyrighted (c) 1998 by Harry J. Gensler but may be distributed freely.